The Story Of Malaya ~ Part 6 of 7

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The British Empire established its web of power over its colonies around the world since the 1800s. Primarily to control the supply of natural resources for trade and industry.

Pre-independent Malaya became the largest producer of natural rubber and tin in the world. The credit of wealth creation was due to the British’s administration. The mining of tin attracted Chinese immigrants while the tapping of rubber attracted Indian immigrants.

 

The British had never sought to convert its colony’s religion to the British Empire’s Anglican Church of England. The Sultans were the spiritual leaders of Islam in their respective states while freedom of religion was accorded to all.

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Malaysia’s 1st PM Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia’s 1st AGONG Tuanku Abdul Rahman, with the Last Governor of the Straits Settlements, Sir MacGillivray.

Background Of Pre-Independent Malaya

Pre-Independent MALAYA had just suffered tremendously under the brutal Japanese occupation during World War 2. After that, even the benign British rule was seen as subservient.

6 - Malaya Japanese

It was a rallying cry for “Malaya to be governed by Malayans”; the cry could no longer to be suppressed.

6 - Malaya Independence

In year 1957, 9 Malay States (with ruling sultanate) and 2 States without Sultans (Penang and Melaka) formed MALAYA. Winning independence from the British.

In 1963, Malaya became Malaysia; after being joined by North Borneo (Sabah), Sarawak and Singapore. Singapore eventually left the federation in 1965.

The first Prime Minister of Malaysia is Tunku Abdul Rahman who is of royal blood; being the seventh son of the Sultan of Kedah.

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The Malay Sultanate

The title of “Sultan” originated from an Arabic abstract noun. Meaning authority, power, rulership and strength.

 

The nine Malay Rulers were immensely popular with their subjects. They were the living symbols of Malay identity and culture.

 

More importantly, Their Royal Majesties are the spiritual leaders of Islam in their respective states. Indeed, the religion of ISLAM is the foundation of the Malay kingdom.

Since 1957, The Yang Di-Pertuan Agong enjoys a veto power (*via his royal assent) to block “new laws” or “ammendments” to the Constitution. However, this veto power was removed in 1993 by the ruling political parties.

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Comparing India To Malaysia. Part 5 of 7

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India and Malaysia share the same journey of learning; both being former British colonies. Even some parts of Malaya’s first Constitution were modeled after India’s Constitution.

The British granted independence to India in 15th August 1947; while Malaya (now Malaysia) won independence in 31st August 1957.

India became a democratic republic where the President is the Head of State; while the Prime Minister is the chief of the Executive branch.

Malaysia became a Constitutional Monarchy where the SUPREME KING AGONG is the Head of State. The Prime Minister is the chief of the Executive branch. Democratic elections are held every five years.

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What Happened To The Original Monarchs In India?

After World War 2, BIG BECAME BEAUTIFUL and size was crucial for strategic survival.

In 1947, India had to consolidate about 565 princely states into one nation state. Persuading the Hindu Maharajahs to relinguish power to the federal government.

 

 

Their British colonial masters assisted in the crucial negotiations with the Maharajahs. The 565 Maharajahs signed instruments of accession to join India. In exchange; they were allowed their “Maharajah” titles, special privileges and a privy State-purse.

Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Indian Prime Minister from 1947 – 1964. While Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India.

 

 

The Winds Of Change.

Then in 1971, there was a power showdown. Indian PM Indira Gandhi with massive support of other politicians; ordered the rewriting of India’s State Constitution.

As a result, the former Maharajahs became ordinary citizens and it was now illegal to use the “Maharajah” title. Their financial lifeline were also cancelled.

On hindsight, Their Royal Majesties gave up their 565 kingdoms – just to become paupers and to die penniless.

Most of all, it taught the former Maharajahs (and us) that politicians can never ever be trusted.

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Democracy And Republic ~ Part 4 of 7

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I have chosen these topics because many of our peers in this generation are born after World War II. Many issues need to be considered in perspective and context.

In the written history of mankind, most of the countries in the world have always been ruled by monarchs or kings.

After World War 2 ended in 1945, many nations started transitioning to new forms of government – being democracies and republics.

In these new forms of government; the majority vote of the nation’s citizens in General Elections determine:-

* the kind of State laws that they want to govern themselves;

* the leaders that they want to lead the State.

4 - Federal Constitution

Constitutional Monarchy

In a democracy, the king is retained as the Head of State.

The extend of powers of the king is as defined in the State Constitution.

In a republic, the President is elected to function as the Head of State.

Singapore’s President has strong veto powers to block the abuse of the nations’ strategic financial reserves.

Both the #Democracy and #Republic State Constitution define that the three branches of government serve under the #Monarch or the #President respectively.

 

The Three Branches Of Government.

The doctrine of the separation of powers is to provide the constitutional checks and balances. This is for the proper functioning of the State.

It ensures that each branch of government acts with integrity; and effectively; and without the abuse of its defined powers.

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(I) The Executive. The Prime Minister is usually the head of the coalition of political parties. He appoints his cabinet of ministers, usually from his allies who are legislators in the Parliament.

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(II) The Parliament. Members of Parliament are voted in by the people during General Elections. MPs legislate new laws or amend current laws to be enacted into the Acts of Parliament.

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(III) The Courts. Judges are appointed by the Head of State/ The Yang Di-Pertuan Agong. The Judiciary interpret the laws of Parliament and makes judicial judgments to be enforced. The Courts can also rule against the Executive or the Legislative Assembly.

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